question archive Chlamydia Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted illness that affects many people

Chlamydia Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted illness that affects many people

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  1. Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted illness that affects many people. Chlamydia trachomatis is the bacterium that causes it. Neither males nor women are immune to the virus. Among women, Chlamydia can affect the cervix and the rectum, as well as the throat. Chlamydia can be contracted by men in the urethra (within the penis), the rectum, or the throat, according to the CDC. Sexual contact with someone who has Chlamydia can lead to the infection (Mohseni M, 2021). When a mother gives birth, Chlamydia can be transmitted to her infant. Even if you've been treated for Chlamydia before, you might catch it again if you have unprotected sexual contact with someone who has it. An infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is known as Chlamydia (C. trachomatis). Chlamydia infection can damage several organs, including the penis, vagina, cervix, urethra, anus, eye, and throat. In some instances, it can permanently harm the reproductive system.

Pathophysiology and Symptomatology

Among microorganisms, only Chlamydia has an infectious cycle and two developing types. Included in this category are the fundamental body (EB) and the reticulate body (RB) (RB). Although it has no metabolic activity, it is absorbed by host cells. Once within the host cell, EB will evolve into RB, which is metabolically active. (Respiratory Biological Complex). They then consume host energy and amino acids to reproduce, becoming more EB, infecting other cells. Female end cervical epithelial cells and those of the urethra, rectum, and conjunctiva are the targets of C. trachomatis infection.

Chlamydia symptoms in women include excessive vaginal bleeding, irritation or burning while urinating (peeing), soreness during and after sex, lower stomach ache – especially after having sex, bleeding between cycles, and heavier periods. Chlamydia symptoms in men include white, hazy, or watery discharge from the penis, discomfort or burning when urinating, and pain and swelling in the testes. In chlamydia therapy, the objective is to reduce the risk of transmission and alleviate the symptoms (Kohlhoff SA, 2015). Male patients with urogenital gonococcal infection should be co-treated with antibiotics after NAAT or gram stain confirmation. It is less valuable in women since the vaginal flora may contain typical Neisseriella species.

Management Plan (pharmacological and non-pharmacological).

To treat chlamydial infection, the Centers for Disease Control suggest azithromycin and doxycycline as first-line medicines. Penicillins and sulfamethoxazole are examples of second-line medicines that are less effective and have more significant side effects. Sexual activity should be avoided until the illness has resolved (Jenkins, 2015). It's recommended that you wait seven days after taking an antibiotic before having sex again. This means that you shouldn't have another sexual encounter until after you've completed taking all of your medication.

  1. Syphilis and Lymphogranuloma.

STI syphilis is caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, a spirochete bacterium that looks like a pale, twisted thread when it infects an individual. Syphilis has a long known history extending back to biblical times, yet until 1838, it was believed to be the same disease as gonorrhea despite its long-established history (Keefe, 2012). As a result of its chronic nature, it has been extensively studied throughout the past century, leading to substantial breakthroughs in therapy. Direct sexual contact is the most prevalent method of transmission for T pallidum subspecies pallidum.

Pathophysiology and Symptomatology

In the light microscope, Treponema is a microscopic creature that is not visible to the naked eye. In the dark field microscope, it may be distinguished by its unique spiral motions. It has a short lifespan outside the body. When the T. pallidum invades, it causes a single, non-tender chancre in the vaginal area. People can have several non-genital chancres, such as fingers, tonsils, and oral mucosa, in addition to genital chancres. When primary syphilis is not treated, it can develop secondary syphilis, with several clinical and histological manifestations (Keefe, 2012). This means that there is no need to treat primary or secondary lesions, and the patient enters an early or latent phase when no clinical signs are evident. Only serological tests can detect the infection at this stage.

As the syphilis virus enters the body, it leaves an infected sore on your skin, called a chancre. There is usually only one ache, although there might be several. There are several places on the body where chancres can appear: the vulva and vaginal area; anus; penis; scrotum; lips and mouth. When the sores are left untreated, they disappear within 3 to 6 weeks (Keefe, 2012). You can still have syphilis if you don't get treated, even though the lesions have disappeared. In the secondary stage, the syphilis rash can last from 2 to 6 weeks at a time, with relapses occurring for up to 2 years. Syphilis in its late stages may lead to tumors, blindness, or paralysis. It doesn't matter if you obtain therapy late; it will still cure the illness and prevent further damage. In any case, the harm was done at that late time.

Management Plan (pharmacological and non-pharmacological).

All phases of syphilis are treated with parenterally given penicillin G. Doxycycline, tetracycline, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin are further options for non-pregnant individuals with no indication of CNS involvement. Sexual contact with new partners must be avoided while receiving syphilis therapy. Sexual partners of those with syphilis must be notified to be tested and treated if required.

  1. Gynecologic Infections

As the name suggests, gynecological infections are infections of the vaginal and genital tract caused by microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or microscopic parasites that cause disease).

Pathophysiology and Symptomatology

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is characterized by an ascending infection of Cervicovaginal bacteria, with Neisseria gonorrhoeae being the most significant pathogens. However, not all women with PID will present with abdominal discomfort, and concomitant unusual symptoms such as metrorrhagia and dyspareunia should be considered diagnostic indicators (Aubyn, 2013). It is helpful to have proof of inflammation of the lower genital tract when diagnosing PID.

Depending on the specific illness, one or more of the following symptoms may be present. Irritation or erythema, discomfort or soreness, and abnormal discharge.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections

Bacteria from another source, such as the adjacent anus, enters the urethra, causing a UTI. Most UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli, which is the most prevalent bacterium (E. coli). Even though other bacteria can cause UTI, E. coli is responsible for roughly 90% of all cases.

Pathophysiology and Symptomatology

Microorganisms in the urinary system produce a urinary tract infection. Almost all of these bacterial species are found in the digestive system. It is estimated that E.Coli, Klebsiella species, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common causes of UTIs (approximately 85 percent or more). The bladder and urethra are both affected by lower UTIs. Upper urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis) damage the kidneys and renal pelvis (Tan, 2016). This type of UTI is called undifferentiated because it is impossible to distinguish between lower or upper UTI.

Several symptoms are associated with a urinary tract infection, such as redness, irritation, and inflammation of the urinary system's lining. There is pain in the side (flank), abdominal or pelvic region. Lower-pelvic pressure It's important to know the difference between frequent urination, urgent urination, and incontinence. Diarrhea from urination

Management Plan

To avoid UTIs, many individuals consume cranberry juice daily. According to some research, certain cranberry products appear to have anti-infective effects, whether in juice or tablet form. Researchers continue to research cranberry juice's capacity to prevent urinary tract infections, but the results are not definitive yet (Tan, 2016). There is no danger in drinking cranberry juice as long as you know the calories when it comes to drinking cranberry juice. For the most part, cranberry juice is safe to consume, although some people experience stomach distress or diarrhea after drinking it. When using blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin or Coumadin, cranberry juice is not recommended for consumption.

  1. HIV

Retrovirus HIV is responsible for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Biochemically, women are more susceptible to STI infection than males, and males are more likely to transfer HIV to females than vice versa.

Pathophysiology and Symptomatology

When it comes to virus replication, they can only take place within a live cell. The structure of a virus is simple (Barbosa, 2018). Viral particles do not have the complex components seen in bacterial or human cells. Thus HIV is purely focused on locating and infecting its target. A common characteristic of all cell types, including viruses, bacteria, and humans, is genetic material, which carries all the information necessary to develop and sustain an entity. It's termed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in humans and microorganisms. It is ribonucleic acid used to organize genetic material in viruses such as HIV (RNA). Viral capsids protect the virus's genetic material, which is made up of RNA and other proteins. In addition to the capsid, the virus has enzymes to infect its host and reproduce. Each of these components is enclosed in a glycoprotein envelope that aids the virus in finding and attaching to its target.

There are flu-like symptoms that can arise within a few weeks of HIV infection. However, it is typically asymptomatic until it develops into an HIV infection. Weight loss, fever or night sweats, tiredness, and recurring infections are among AIDS symptoms.

Management Plan (pharmacological and non-pharmacological).

HIV treatment is known as antiretroviral therapy (ART) (ART). Patient's daily HIV medicines are prescribed as part of antiretroviral therapy (also known as an HIV treatment regimen) (Barbosa, 2018). All HIV-positive people should receive ART. People with HIV can't be cured with ART, but the drugs they take can live longer and better lives. In addition, ART decreases the chance of HIV infection.

Patient Education

Over 18 million new STD cases arise each year. An STD can be contracted by anybody who engages in sexual activity. Four years running, Denver's STD rates have skyrocketed for the most prevalent STDs, including Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis. Sexual activity, sharing needles, and IV drug usage are all ways that HIV is transferred. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than half of all Americans will be diagnosed with an STD throughout their lifetime. When STDs are not treated, they can lead to infertility, cancer, blindness, and even death if not addressed. There are a variety of strategies to avoid STDs, which is a good thing.

The most straightforward approach to prevent STDs is to avoid sexual activity. There may be a better name for abstinence than abstinence for many people. Many people opt to postpone or postpone intercourse until the appropriate conditions are met (Norain Mansor, 2020). They're waiting for the proper person to come along, or until they've gotten to know their partner better, or until they get married. If a person refrains from having intercourse, they are not in danger of contracting an STD, regardless of the cause. A non-infected partner who has only had safe intercourse with you is essential. Talk to your spouse about STDs. Investigate their history of STD exposure and testing. Speak openly about sexual history, as well as any drug use or sharing needles.

Part 2

Information on a patient's specific physiological, psychological, social, and spiritual needs is collected throughout the nursing assessment. The parameters for health assessment may include;

  1. Pain Assessment.

Perceived discomfort may be subjective and hard to quantify. Anything that the patient or customer describes as being painful will be considered pain. In the role of a nurse, one should be aware of the various elements that might affect a patient's pain. Patient comfort can be improved by systematic pain evaluation, measurement, and reassessment. Using age-appropriate pain scales makes it easier for healthcare professionals to assess and communicate pain in a succinct manner (Toney-Butler, 2020). During the admission and discharge procedures, better communication about pain assessment and reassessment facilitates pain management, improving overall function and quality of life.

  1. Psychosocial parameters

The patient's physical and emotional needs are the most important considerations. It includes assessing cognitive function, screening for hallucinations or delusions, assessing concentration levels, and asking about hobbies or level of activity. As part of a psychological examination, the client is asked how they feel and respond to those sensations (Toney-Butler, 2020). Has their behavior changed? Are they angry or irritable? Do they speak in loud tones? Are they suicidal or depressed? Are they unable to talk? Are they sobbing or overwhelmed?

  1. Cultural Parameters.

As a result of cultural competency evaluation, nursing diagnosis and care may be hindered in certain situations. This should include ethnicity, languages spoken, and whether or not an interpreter is required (Toney-Butler, 2020). Written and verbal instructions should be given in the primary language, assisting systems and decision-makers in Religious rituals and living arrangements.

Familial development theory is perhaps most known for its stages-of-life view on the family (Joronen K., 2014). According to Evelyn Duvall's family life cycle categorization chart, there are eight stages of the family life cycle:

  • First-time parents (married pair without children).
  • Childbearing families (birth to 30 months).
  • Preschool families (oldest kid 2–6 years).
  • School children families (oldest child 6–13 years).
  • Family with teens (eldest kid 13–20 years old).
  • Families as launch facilities (First kid gone to the final child's leaving home).
  • The middle years of a family's life (from empty nest to retirement).
  • As the population ages (retirement...).

Family structure is a term used to describe the range of family unit compositions. Families can comprise single-parent families or even couples exclusively. Other families include singles, couples without children, and extended families, including cohabiting relatives (Turagabeci AR, 2016). The impacts of family structure on indicators of health-related quality of life and hypertension remain regardless of age, gender, lifestyle risk factors, and social support. In contrast to multigenerational families, living in a small family harms mental health, although the presence of caring/concerned individuals mitigates this negative impact.

In addition, the complexity of immense family structures will lead to increased health consciousness, increased awareness, and opportunities for sharing health information. As a result of the tight relationship between many everyday activities and lifestyles, immense family structures are more likely to enable a traditional lifestyle, which is viewed as healthier. In this sense of the word, a strong family structure works as a buffer against poor health, supporting a healthy quality of life.

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