1) What is a character? Give 3 examples of characters that Mendel studied. Give 3 examples of human characters. What are traits?
2) What is meant by phenotype? Give examples of phenotypes for the pea plant and human traits you listed above.
3) Genes and environment affect: the genotype or the phenotype? Think of two examples of human traits that are influenced by environmental factors.
4) What is an allele? What are the two possible alleles in pea plants for pea/seed shape?
5) Define genotype. What are the possible genotypes of a pea plant that has round seeds? Wrinkled seeds? Purple flowers? White flowers?
6) What is a dominant allele? What is a recessive allele? How does an allele relate to a gene? To a protein? To DNA sequence?.
7) Are the following genotypes homozygous or heterozygous? Bb; PP; ww; Gg
8) What are the gametes produced by a Bb individual? By what process were these gametes produced?
9) When two heterozygotes are crossed the resulting offspring or zygotes from this cross are expected to have what genotypic ratio? Phenotypic ratio?
10) The fact that the two alleles of a gene end up in different gametes describes which of Mendel's laws?
11) How do two different traits behave in a genetic cross (independently or dependently)? This behavior occurs according to which of Mendel's laws?
12) Independent assortment occurs during which stage of meiosis? Draw an example of independent assortment for two chromosomes.
13) In peas round seeds (R) are dominant to wrinkled (r). Use a Punnett square to determine the expected genotypic and phenotypic ratios for the following crosses:
14) In mice coat color is determined by a dominant allele (B = black) and a recessive allele (b = white).
If a homozygous dominant mouse for coat color was crossed to a white mouse, what would be the genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring?
15) In horses black coat color is determined by a dominant allele (B), while the recessive allele (b) determines chestnut coat color. The dominant allele (T) causes a trotting gait, while the recessive allele causes a pacing gait (t).
If a heterozygous black pacer is crossed with a horse that is heterozygous black and heterozygous trotter, what would be the phenotypic ratio
16) If PpRRTt plant was crossed with a ppRrTt plant, answer the following questions.
How many different gametes from each parent?
What are the possible gametes from each parent?
What is probability of getting the following from the above cross?
17) What were the advantages of using pea plants in Mendel's experiment? What are the advantages of using humans in genetic research?
18) What are the three degree of dominance? What is Tay-Sachs disease? What is degree of dominance of genes at various level in Tay-Sachs disease?
19)What is the plieotrophy? Give examples of disease due to plieotrophy?
20) What is epistasis? Give example.
21) Give examples of dominant and recessively inherited disorders?