question archive Abracadabra Case Study 1) What is the difference between HIV and AIDS? 2

Abracadabra Case Study 1) What is the difference between HIV and AIDS? 2

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Abracadabra Case Study

1) What is the difference between HIV and AIDS?

2. List and explain the major routes of HIV transmission.

3. What does seropositive mean and how is a person tested for HIV?

4. What are some symptoms associated with acute phase HIV infection? What are the symptoms of AIDS?

5. What benefits are associated with Magic Johnson's announcement concerning his HIV- positive status? What risks or drawbacks can you think of associated with his announcement?

6. What is meant by virus load? Draw a graph of a typical virus load profile for an HIV-infected individual.

7. Based on the HIV life cycle, propose potential anti-HIV treatment targets. Which targets would be most effective in blocking HIV infection? Which targets would be least effective?

8. Propose biological and immunological reasons for why Magic Johnson's viral load levels are undetectable. Graph your ideas as a function of time, beginning with his initial infection through the present day. Since Magic Johnson's virus load is undetectable, is he cured of HIV? Support your answer with biological reasons.

9. What is the advantage of using multiple targets during HAART?

10. Do you agree with the statement "The drugs he takes are available to everyone"? What are some factors that might make this an overstatement?

11. As a spokesperson for GlaxoSmithKline, what impact will Magic Johnson have on how HIV- positive people are viewed? What influence will he have on the future of GlaxoSmithKline? On other HIV-positive African Americans? What ethical aspects can you think of associated with using Johnson as a spokesperson by a pharmaceutical company such as GlaxoSmithKline?

  1. How are natural selection and microevolution illustrated in this scenario? Identify the genetic basis for HIV evolutionary change, the selective pressure, and the resulting adaptation. What happens to mutants that are able to escape detection by the immune system?
  2. Describe how mutations could lead to drug resistance in the RT enzyme. Include physical, molecular, and biochemical reasons.
  3. Define compliance. Draw a curve of what the virus load profile would look like if a patient is not compliant. Label the X-axis with time and the Y-axis with virus load.
  4. Why is STI considered a scientifically controversial strategy? Suggest three biological reasons why STI could be advantageous. Predict what will happen to the virus over time if patients are then allowed to resume their HAART therapy after STI. Propose situations in which the STI approach may not be recommended or effective in some HIV-positive people. How would a physician be able to tell if STI is working?

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